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Contraceptives and their effects

Contraceptives and their effects

05:43 17th April 2016 | Birth Control Methods

Condoms Caps Diaphragm Hormonal Methods Birth Control Pills Implants Injections Contraceptive Pills Sterillization Cervical Caps Vaginal Ring IUD Methods Shorter Periods Menstrual Cramps Premenstrual Symptoms Endometrial Ovarian Cancer Spotting Bleeding Vaginal Irritation Breast Tenderness Breast Enlargement Mood Swings Nausea Bloating Liver Cancer

There are at least 15 different types of contraception that allow you to enjoy sex without the risk of getting pregnant.These birth control methods include barrier methods –condoms, caps and the diaphragm; hormonal methods – birth control pills, implants and injections;Intrauterine devices (IUDs), sterilization and the emergency morning after contraceptive pill.


Contraceptives work by :

Preventing an egg from being released every month ·

Preventing a fertilized egg from implanting in the uterus · 

Preventing sperms from reaching the egg · 

Blocking the reproductive function in men or women


The condom and the pill are the most commonly used types of contraception. The contraceptive pill prevents pregnancy in 95% of cases and comes close to providing 99% protection if the pill is taken every day as prescribed. The contraceptive implant offers long-term protection and has around 99.99% rate of effectiveness.

Barrier methods include the male and female condoms, the cervical cap, the vaginal ring and the Intrauterine Device (IUD) and the so-called morning-after pill. Sterilization is a permanent option for both men and should be carefully considered before being undertaken. In choosing any method, it is important to weigh up ease of use versus effectiveness. On average, hormonal contraception methods are over 95% effective and the condom is about 99 percent effective. Barrier methods such as the diaphragm offer a protection rate of between 80 to 95 per cent.


Barrier and some IUD methods will not affect your ability to conceive when you stop using them but some women using hormonal contraceptives experience lighter and shorter periods and an easing of menstrual cramps and premenstrual symptoms. Use of hormone-based contraceptives also decreases the risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer. They may also offer some protection against noncancerous breast or ovarian growths but may increase the risk of breast cancer.


Side effects of oral and patch contraceptives include loss of menstruation(amenorrhea) and some bleeding or spotting between periods. Some women experience vaginal irritation, breast tenderness, or breast enlargement.Serious but uncommon side effects include heavy or prolonged bleeding or bleeding. For some women, birth control pills and patches can increase the blood pressure and the likelihood of forming a blood clot. That risk is substantially higher if you’re a smoker or are over 35 years. These side effects are uncommon but potentially very serious. Some women experience mood swings and complain of nausea and bloating. There is also an increased risk of benign liver tumours or liver cancer.


On average it takes between four to five months to get pregnant and in the absence of contraception, over 80% of women will become pregnant within a year. If you would like to discuss contraception in more detail, please phone us at 01 631 0092 or email

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